Incidence or obesity is increasing worldwide in both the developed and developing countries including INDIA.
Environmental factors are the most prominent underlying cause of obesity this has led to increase in obesity related multi – organ problems, almost all organs are ill – effected and therefore have higher rise of death. Alarmingly, Children and Adolescent are more prone to develop obesity and worse long term problems, including infertility and pregnancy related problems in their adulthood and have shorter life span as compared to obese adults.
Discrimination at work place and in society is another factor to affect their mental health and make them suffer from depression and lack of self esteem.
Data on obesity about Indian population are scary. Few studies from north India Survey by national family survey shows that prevalence of obesity among Indian women has elevated from 10.6% to 12.6% the prevalence is more profound in the women of age between 40 – 49 yrs. Residing in cities, having high qualification, belonging to Sikh community (31.6%) and households in the highest percentage of obese women is found in Punjab (29.9%)
Worldwide U.S.A has the highest percentage of obesity in the population than any other country. About 5% of the U.S. adult population than any other country
The fundamental cause of obesity is an every imbalance between calories consumed on one hand and calories expended on the other hand
Environmental factors are playing a significant contributory role in this epidemic disease. Sedentary life style changing modes of transportation over – work with tendency to eat high calorie processed food are among the important factors.
Children are similarly prone to obesity following tendency of over eating which watching televisions or engaged in video games. Breast milk fed children are relatively protected from. Obesity as they grow. Obesity is a familiar disease is many members of the same family are prone to have obesity
Obese patients have persistent hunger despite adequate meal. Gastro – Intestinal hormone, ghrelin mediates the process of satiety and higher levels develop in individuals following low – calorie diets.
ASSESSMENT OF OBESITY
The most widely used method to define obesity is body – mass – index (BMI) a ratio of weight in kilograms divided by height in meter squared (Kg/m2) normal weight as 18.0-22.9 kg/m2 (BMI)
Over weight : 23.0 -24.9kg/m2
With BMI > 25 kg/m2 are considered as obese.
ASSOCIATED MEDICAL DISORDER
Morbid obesity is a metabolic disease associated with numerous medical problems, some of which are virtually unknown in the absence of obesity. Almost all organs of body are Ill-Effected by untreated obesity.
JOINT RELATED DISORDERS
The most frequent problem is the combination of arthritis and degenerative joint disease present in at least 50 % of morbidly obese persons
The incidence of sleep apnea is high. Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep each episode lasts long enough that one or more breaths are missed and such episodes occur repeatedly throughout sleep common problems related with obstructive sleep apnea are loud snoring, restless night sleep leading to day time sleepiness. In severe from it affects the heart in from in congestive heart failure
sleep apnea is diagnosed with an overnight sleep test called a polysomnogram (sleep Study) that shows blood oxygen desideration (Fall of oxygen in blood) of 34% of greater
In obese patients, Insulin (Hormone that regulate blood sugar level)functions are ineffective and in long term lead to development of so called “metabolic Syndrome”. Metabolic syndrome encompasses 3 of the following components the presence of visceral obesity (waist circumference of more than 40 inches in males and more than 35 inches in females) hypertension with a blood pressure greater than 130/85 mm Hg, Fasting blood glucose greater than 100 mg/dl, Elevated triglycerides of 150 or greater and a low high density lipoprotein of less than 40 in males and 50 in females
Cardiac problems are also very common in an obese person. Obesity itself is a dominant risk factor for coronary artery disease and associated metabolic disorders make heart more vulnerable to coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death
GASTROINTENSTINAL & LIVER DISORDERS
Gastro – Intestinal disorders are very common in obese patient. Gastro – Esophagealreflux is an abnormal reflux of stomach acid to the esophagus due to high intra abdominal pressure in obese person and manifests as burning sensation in chest and upper part of abdomen. Stones in gall bladder are frequently associated with obesity.
OBESITY AND LIVER DISEASE
Non-Alcoholic-Fatty-Liver-Disease is among the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Non-Alcoholic-Fatty-Liver-disease is now recognized as the hepatic manifestation of the cirrhosis hepatocellular carcinoma or liver failure.
OBESITY AND INFERTILITY
- FEMALE INFERTELITY: – Up to 4-7% obese females have polycystic –ovary-syndrome (PCOS) and those with PCOS not only suffer from infertility as a result of an ovulation but also have an increased risk for recurrent miscarriages and complications during pregnancy. Although the pathology of PCOS may have a genetic component its escalating rates in the general population also may be associated with environmental factors, such as changes in dietary habits and lack of regular exercise. Obesity increases the risk for the metabolic syndrome also is associated with plus.
- MALE INFERTILITY: – Obese males also suffer from infertility and it’s largely due to reduced sperm concentrations and DNA fragmentation in semen and to some extent by poor sperm motility and morphology.
- EFFECT ON PREGNANCY: – Obesity significantly increases the risk of maternal complications during pregnancy risk of early and recurrent miscarriage. The risk of fetal death is not restricted to early pregnancy as the risk for second and third trimester fetal loss increases consistently with increasing BMI obese person are also prone to have hypertensive disorders, Diabetes, Infection, Thrombus-Embolism, Altered mood during the course of pregnancy and complications during labor. And delivery, such as fetal distress arrest of active phase of instrumental delivery and cesarean section.
HIGHER RISK OF DEATH AND SHORTER LIFE SPAN
Obesity has a profound effect on overall health and life expectancy, largely secondary to weight-related co-morbidities it is estimated that a man who is severely obese at age 21 will live 12 years lesser than a non obese individual & obese women will live 9yrs less.
EAT RIGHT FEEL RIGHT
Feeling stressed out is a common phenomenon in today’s life. The hectic routine of juggling between home and work can leave you drained out. If this is your routine, you need to have a closer look at something very basic your food platter.
Healthy eating is a key to healthy living. A Balanced meal not only keeps you going throughout the day, but also helps to keep illness at bay. So do take care that your body gets all the important nutrients that will keep you hail & hearty.
It is very important to understand the basis nutritional need of one’s body. Your meal should be eaten to keep you energetic.
DO NOT FAST, EAT BREAKFAST
Breakfast from the most important part of your meal plan a healthy breakfast is important to keep you going the whole day as it boosts your metabolism. A good breakfast slim as it will keep you full and stop you from snaking. Research has indicated that a high carbohydrate low fat breakfast help you to be alert and assertive. A good breakfast should be an ideal combination of carbohydrates, protein and fiber, fish, soya products, eggs and milk are good sources of protein”
One Should Generally take natural wheat based food.